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Facilities Sand Management: Key Items and References (B-FSM033)

This is the last article from the Facilities Sand Management (FSM) training Module 2 entitled “The Nature of Solids”. Below is a summary of key items and references from articles B-FSM-001 through B-FSM-032.

Key Items

  • All oil & gas wells produce sand (B-FSM-001)
  • Inclusionary sand management can increase hydrocarbon flow (B-FSM-002)
  • Sand is solid particles that are separable in facilities equipment (B-FSM-007)
  • Natural and artificial solids have different properties (B-FSM-008)
  • Sample size, amount, and method is critical for FSM design (B-FSM-009/010)
  • Apparent density, PSD, and volume packing are key properties (B-FSM-021)
  • Concentration, density, and settling rate calculations (B-FSM-022/023/024)
  • Solids transport in piping, and valve & instrument selection (B-FSM-026 to -030)


  1. Brown, C.E., Neustadter, E.L., “The wettability of oil/water/silica systems with reference to oil recovery”, Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, July-September, 1980, pp. 100-110.
  2. Bumiller, M., “The Importance of Particle Shape (presentation)”, Horiba Scientific, 2013.
  3. Clift, R., Grace, J.R., Weber, M.E., “Bubbles, Drops, and Particles”, Dover Publications, Mineola, NY, USA, 1978.
  4. Davies, J.T. 1987. “Calculation of Critical Velocities to Maintain Solids in Suspension in Horizontal Pipes”, Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 42, No. 7, pp. 1667-1670.
  5. Dubey, S.T., Doe. P.H., “Base number and wetting properties of crude oils”, SPE Reservoir Engineering, August, 1993, pp. 195-200.
  6. Ethington, E.F., “Interfacial Contact Angle Measurements of Water, Mercury, and 20 Organic Liquids on Quartz, Calcite, Biotite, and Ca-Montmorillonite Substrates”, USGS-OFR-90-409, U.S. Geological Survey, Golden, Colorado, July 1990.
  7. Green, D.W. and Perry, R.H. 2008. Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, 8th Ed. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (Chapter 6).
  8. Han, G., Dusseault, M.B., Cook, J., “Why Sand Fails After Water Breakthrough”, paper ARMA/NARMS 04-505, 6th North American Rock Mechanics Symposium, Houston, TX, June 5-9, 2004.
  9. Malvern Instruments Limited, “A Basic Guide to Particle Characterization, 2012.
  10. McLaury, B.S., and Shirazi. S.A. 1999. “Generalization of API RP 14E for Erosive Service in Multiphase Production”. Paper 56812 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 3-6 October.
  11. Rawlins, C.H., “Design of a Cyclonic Solids Jetting Device and Slurry Transport System for Production Systems,” paper 166118-MS, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, LA, Sep 30-Oct 2, 2013.
  12. Smart, J.S., 2009. “Flow Velocity Required for Solid Particle Movement in Oil & Gas Pipelines”, Corrosion 2009 Conference & Expo, NACE International, paper 09469.
  13. Turian, R.M., Hsu, F.-L., Ma, T.-W. 1987. “Estimation of Critical Velocity in Pipeline Flow of Slurries”, Power Technology, 51, pp. 35-47.
  14. Vaziri, H., Barree, B., Xiao, Y., Palmer, I., Kutas, M., “What is the Magic of Water in Producing Sand?”, paper 77683, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, TX, 29 September-2 October, 2002.
  15. Webb, P.A., “Volume and Density Determinations for Particle Technologists”, Micromeritics Instrument Corp., February 2001.
  16. Wilson, K.C., Addie, G.R., Sellgren, A., Clift, R. 2006. “Slurry Transport Using Centrifugal Pumps, Third Edition”, Springer, New York, NY.

The next article will start module M-3 on “Solids Handling”.

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