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Facilities Sand Management: Hazardous Solids (B-FSM032)

Taken from www.site-lab.com/crudeoil-in-produced-sand.pdf

This is a very simple discussion of materials encountered with produced solids that are considered hazardous.


  • Oil is not hazardous, but does prevent overboard discharge of produced sand
  • Solids must cleaned before offshore discharge, typically to <1 wt.% oil on dry solids
  • Use a sand cleaning system – batch cyclone-recirculation loop (will be detailed in future article)
  • For on-site analysis using SiteLab kit

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

  • Primarily in gaseous phase or liberated during pressure letdown
  • Slurry must be gas blanketed and purged with all vapors captured/scrubbed

Pyrophoric Solids (i.e. FeS)

  • Can combust and form H2S
  • Slurry to be contained with gas blanketed then purged at landfill

Heavy Metals (i.e. Hg)

  • Free mercury very heavy and stays with solids (note: mercury droplets can be separated from liquid stream using a hydrocyclone)
  • All solids captured for landfill disposal


  • Typically from Ra in Ba/Sr scale formed on solids
  • All solids captured for landfill disposal
  • I hear the NORM lady has a great class on dealing this this material

The next article will wrap up this material from FSM training module M-2 on “The Nature of Solids”, by providing a list of good technical references.

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