All Oil & Gas Wells Produce Sand (B-FSM001)
…therefore, all production facilities must be capable of managing sand in the flow streams.
The most common methods of sand management attempt to exclude solid particles from the well flow using a production limit or completion string. When these approaches are not economical or technically feasible, or when they fail, the surface facilities (subsea, offshore, or onshore) must manage the produced sand.
Surface sand handling is termed Facilities Sand Management (FSM).
Sand co-production, which requires Facilities Sand Management, is shown to increase hydrocarbon recovery. This approach completes the well without a completion string – either barefoot or open-hole with large slots. Sand is produced with the hydrocarbons to increase the reservoir interface area, decrease skin, and improve inflow. Sand must be separated and handled in the surface facilities without interfering with the equipment uptime.
- Andrews, J., Kjørholt, H., and Jøranson, H. 2005. Production Enhancement from Sand Management Philosophy. A Case Study from Statfjord and Gulfaks. Paper 94511 presented at the SPE 6th European Formation Damage Conference, Scheveningen, The Netherlands, 25-27 May.
- Fadillah, P.M., Ahmad, P.H., Ward, M. et al. 2004. Gecko Wells: Bringing Sand to Surface, a Change in Well Design Philosophy. Paper 87956 presented at the IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology Conference and Exhibition. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 13-15 September.
- Geilikman, M.B., Dusseault, M.B., and Dullien, F.A. 1994. Fluid Production Enhancement by Exploiting Sand Production. Paper 27797 presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium. Tulsa, Oklahoma, 17-20 April.
- Guinot, F., Douglass, S., Duncan, J. et al. 2009. Sand Exclusion and Management in the Okwori Subsea Oil Field, Nigeria. Paper 106294 in SPE Drilling & Completion 24 (1): 157-168.
- Kaura, J.D., Macrae, A., and Mennie, D. 2001. Clean up and Well Testing Operations in High-Rate Gas-Condensate Field Result in Improved Sand Management System. Paper 68747 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition. Jakarta, Indonesia, 17-19 April.
- Sanfilippo, F., Brignoli, M., Giacca, D. et al. 1997. Sand Production: From Prediction to Management. Paper 38185 presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference. The Hague, Netherlands, 2-3 June.
- Selfridge, F., Munday, M., Kvernvold, O. et al. 2003. Safely Improving Production Performance through Improved Sand Management. Paper 83979 presented at the Offshore Europe. Aberdeen, UK, 2-5 September.
- Vaziri, H.H., Lemoine, E., Palmer, I.D. et al. 2000. How Can Sand Production Yield a Several-Fold Increase in Productivity: Experimental and Field Data. Paper 63235 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Dallas, TX, 1-4 October.